The Cuenca Provincial Deputation was constituted on 19 April 1813 with only seven deputies and three substitutes by mandate of the Cadiz Constitution of 1812. Although it should have been created a year earlier, the occupation of the capital of Cuenca by French troops prevented it and it had to wait until 1813. Ignacio Rodríguez de Fonseca was its first president.

In its early years, its functioning and constitution was conditioned by the winds of national politics, until 1835, when it was definitively consolidated with the new territorial division into provinces proposed by Javier de Burgos and approved by the Spanish Government in 1833 at the beginning of the reign of Isabel II.

The lack of economic resources largely conditioned its beginnings, which were basically limited to charitable work. When it began to collect money from the citizens through contributions, it began to carry out more complex actions, even drawing up a Road Plan in 1864 thanks to which it improved communication between the capital and the neighbouring towns. "It was one of the most important tasks carried out in that first period.

Little by little, the Diputación gradually acquired relevance, and the 20th century was the period in which it had the most powers in the territory, being the intermediate administration between the State and the municipalities.

With the arrival of the Autonomous Communities, its own competences have been oriented towards the attention and assistance to the local councils.

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